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The definitive guide to BBC micro:bit



What is micro:bit?

The micro:bit is a pocket-sized computer that introduces kids to how software and hardware work together. It is an interactive and programmable device, which consists of various input-output features such as LED light display, sensors, buttons, etc. It is also referred to as BBC micro:bit since BBC designed the device to encourage young people to become the digital innovators of the future. A more technical definition can be:  

“The micro:bit is an open-source programmable hardware ARM-based embedded system.”

Who invented micro: bit? 

The Micro:bit was originally created by BBC, in collaboration with 29 other leaders in business and academia as part of BBC’s Make it Digital Initiative. The major UK-wide product was launched in 2014, with a focus on creating the next generation of digital innovators. In early 2016, up to 1 million micro:bits were distributed to Year 7 students in non-formal education settings and libraries across the United Kingdom, in a project led by BBC Education

In 2016, BBC created Micro:bit educational foundation, a non-profit organization to scale the product and maximize opportunities for students across the world, to learn programming and hardware.  

What is a micro:bit educational foundation? 

The Micro:bit Educational Foundation is a nonprofit organization, established by BBC Education and distinguished partners from academia and industry including ARM, British Council, Lancaster University, Microsoft, Nominet, etc with an aim of maximizing opportunities for students internationally.  

What is the mission of a micro:bit educational foundation? 


Inspiring children– We enable and inspire all children to participate in the digital world, with a particular focus on girls and those from disadvantaged groups

Making Easy & effective learning– We make micro: bit the easiest and most effective learning tool for digital skills and creativity 

Collaborating with Educators– We work in collaboration with educators to create and curate exceptional curriculum materials, training programs, and resources. 

Support communities of educators and partners– We build and support communities of educators and partners to remove the barriers to learning digital skills

When was the micro:bit launched? 

The micro:bit was launched in 2014, in the United Kingdom by BBC in collaboration with 29 other leaders. Check out several milestones in the history of micro:bit here

Who is the primary user of micro:bit? 

micro:bit is primarily designed for kids, to learn how to code. In March 2020, there were more than 4 Million micro:bits in the market across 60+ Countries. The board is used by learners and educators across the world. 

About micro:bit

How many versions of micro:bits are available in the market today? 

There are two types of micro:bit existing in the market right now, they are called v1 and v2 versions of micro:bit. 

micro:bit v1

What are the features of micro:bit v1? 

The Mico: Bit v1 is 43mm x 52mm in dimensions and includes: 

Processing Unit

  • Nordic nRF51822 – 16 MHz 32-bit ARM Cortex-MO microcontroller. 

Memory Unit

  • 256 KB Flash Memory and 16 KB static RAM> 

General Purpose Input/Output

  • 2.4 GHz Bluetooth low energy wireless networking. 
  • OTG USB 2.0 controller, used as a communication interface between USB and main Nordic Microcontroller. 
  • 3 Axis Accelerometer Sensor. 
  • 3 Axis Magnetometer Sensor. 
  • MicroUSB connector, battery connector, 25-pin edge connector. 
  • Display 25  LEDs in a 5×5 array. 
  • Three tactile pushbuttons. (two for applications and one for reset) 
  • I/O also includes three-ring connectors, which accept crocodile clips or 4 mm banana plugs as well as a 25-pin edge connector with two or three PWM outputs. 

Unlike early prototypes, which had an integral battery, an external battery pack (AAA batteries) can be used to power the device as a standalone or wearable product.

Can we connect additional sensors to the micro:bit v1?

Yes, additional sensors can be connected to the micro:bit v1,  using the additional 3 general purpose Input-output pins provided at one edge of the micro:bit. 

How can we connect additional input/output devices to the micro:bit v1? 

The micro:bit has 25 external connections on the edge connector of the board, which we refer to as pins. The edge connector is at the opposite edge of the micro:bit logo. It consists of 5 large pins, that are also connected to holes in the board labelled: 0, 1, 2, 3V, and GND.  And along the same edge, there are  20 small pins, which can be used using an edge connector. 

Large Pins 

You can easily attach crocodile clips or 4mm banana plugs to the five large pins. 

  • 0: GPIO (general-purpose digital input and output) with analog to digital converter (ADC).
  • 1: GPIO with ADC
  • 2: GPIO with ADC
  • 3V: 3-volt power output or power input. (1) power output: If the micro: bit is powered by USB or a battery, then you can use the 3V pin as a power output to power peripherals with; (2) power input: If the micro: bit is not being powered by USB or battery, you can use the 3V pin as a power input to power the micro: bit
  • GND: attaches to the ground in order to complete a circuit (required when using the 3V pin)

Small Pins

  • pin 3: GPIO shared with LED Col 1 of the LED screen; can be used for ADC and digital I/O when the LED screen is turned off.
  • pin 4: GPIO shared with LED Col 2 of the LED screen; can be used for ADC and digital I/O when the LED screen is turned off.
  • pin 5: GPIO shared with Button A. This lets you trigger or detect a button “A” click externally. This pin has a pull-up resistor, which means that by default it is at a voltage of 3V. To replace button A on the micro:bit with an external button, connect one end of the external button to pin 5 and the other end to GND. When the button is pressed, the voltage on pin 5 is pulled down to 0, which generates a button click event.
  • pin 6: GPIO shared with LED Col 9 of the LED screen; can be used for digital I/O when the LED screen is turned off.
  • pin 7: GPIO shared with LED Col 8 of the LED screen; can be used for digital I/O when the LED screen is turned off.
  • pin 8: Dedicated GPIO, for sending and sensing digital signals.
  • pin 9: GPIO shared with LED Col 7 of the LED screen; can be used for digital I/O when the LED screen is turned off.
  • pin 10: GPIO shared with LED Col 3 of the LED screen; can be used for ADC and digital I/O when the LED screen is turned off.
  • pin 11: GPIO shared with Button B. This lets you trigger or detect a button “B” click externally.
  • pin 12: this GPIO pin has been reserved to provide support for accessibility.
  • pin 13: GPIO that is conventionally used for the serial clock (SCK) signal of the 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus.
  • pin 14: GPIO that is conventionally used for the Master In Slave Out (MISO) signal of the SPI bus.
  • pin 15: GPIO that is conventionally used for the Master Out Slave In (MOSI) signal of the SPI bus.
  • pin 16: Dedicated GPIO (conventionally also used for SPI ‘Chip Select’ function).
  • pins 17 and 18: these pins are wired to the 3V supply, like the large ‘3V’ pad.
  • pins 19 and 20: implement the clock signal (SCL) and data line (SDA) of the I2C bus communication protocol. With I2C, several devices can be connected on the same bus and send/read messages to and from the CPU. Internally, the accelerometer and the compass are connected to i2c.
  • pins 21 and 22: these pins are wired to the GND pin and serve no other function

Unlike the three large pins, that are dedicated for external connections, some of the small pins are shared with other components, on the micro: bit board. So make sure you check which pins you should use if you want to parallelly use the features. 

From where can I buy a micro:bit? 

BBC micro:bit reseller companies sell the device all around the world. micro:bit has partnered with several companies, which resell the micro:bit in different countries. You can go to the micro:bit website, and go to the buy section in the navigation bar. You can choose the country you are residing in, and then choose the suitable supplier and order your micro:bit v1. 

micro:bit v2: 

micro:bit v2 was launched recently in October 2020. The v2 version supports all the features of v1 micro:bit. This version of micro:bit consists of many more features, 


Following is an illustration of the added components on the board. 

What are the differences between micro:bit v1 and v2? 

Nordic Semiconductor nRF51822ProcessorNordic Semiconductor nRF52833
256kB Flash 16kB RAMMemory512kB Flash, 128kB RAM
NXP KL26Z, 16kB RAMInterfaceNXP KL27Z, 32kB RAM
25 pins. 3 dedicated GPIO, PWM, i2c, SPI, and ext. power. 3 ring pins for connecting crocodile clips/banana plugs.Edge Connector25 pins. 4 dedicated GPIO, PWM, i2c, SPI, and ext. power. 3 ring pins for connecting crocodile clips/banana plugs. Notched for easier connection
Shared I2C BusI2CDedicated I2C bus for peripherals
2.4Ghz micro:bit Radio/BLE Bluetooth 4.0Wireless2.4Ghz Micro:bit Radio/BLE Bluetooth 5.0
5V via Micro USB port, 3V via edge connector or battery pack.Power5V via Micro USB port, 3V via edge connector or battery pack, LED power indicator, Power off (push and hold power button)
90mA available for accessoriesCurrent available200mA available for accessories
ST LSM 303Motion sensorST LSM 303
5cm(w) x 4cm(h)Size5cm(w) x 4cm(h)
Comparison between micro:bit v1 and v2

How to program or code a micro:bit? 

In order to code any piece of hardware, we need a language in which we can communicate with the device and a medium through which we can do so. Coding is a set of instructions that we provide to micro:bit to make it perform the desired action. 

There is a huge community of people who are making tools for programming and interacting with the micro:bit which means you can program your micro:bit in Python, C++, and other languages, including other block editors. 

There are several editors which are suggested on the micro:bit website, to get started with coding the micro:bit. For the purpose of illustration, we will showcase how to code using MakeCode. 

Microsoft MakeCode

Microsoft’s MakeCode editor is the perfect way to start programming and get creating with the BBC micro:bit. Microsoft as a partner in the micro:bit program has developed this kid-friendly colored block-based coding platform.  You can use this platform from anywhere in the world, by going to

Step by step procedure to code using Blocks in Makeblock

Step 1: Go to 

Step 2:  Click on the tutorials section, and select the first tutorial, called flashing heart. 

Step 3: Select Block Coding from the options provided.

Step 4: You will get a pop-up mentioning the project description. Click ok. 

Step 5: Check out the hints given on the right side of the screen. 

Step 6: Select the LED Matrix Block from the left dashboard. 

Step 7: Put the LED Matrix in the forever block, and select the LEDs which you want to light up. In this case a flashing heart. 

See the simulation of the code you have written in the on-screen micro-bit present on the left side of the screen. In order to transfer the code to the physical micro:bit, perform the steps below: 

Step 8: Connect the micro:bit with your computer, using the USB Cable. 

You will notice that the power LED will light up in your micro:bit, as soon as you connect the USB cable. You can also see a drive added to your computer called micro:bit. 

Step 9: Click on the Download button, and save the hex file in the micro:bit folder on your computer. 

You will notice, that a twinkling yellow light will start glowing in your micro bit, this is because your code is getting transferred to it. 

Post the code is downloaded into your micro:bit,  you will be able to see the Heart in your physical micro:bit too. 

Check out Wiingy’s courses here.

Components of micro:bit

We will now deep-dive into each of the components, their location in the micro:bit, and their utility. Primarily there are two types of components that you can use can notice in a micro:bit, which you will be generally using during your experimentations and projects. 

Input devices: 

Input devices allow us to pass on information to the computer from the outer world. These are important when you have to logically change the output of the 

Experiment, by logically passing multiple inputs. Your computer has multiple kinds of input devices, such as a Keyboard, Mouse, Mic, etc. micro:bit also consists of multiple components which can take inputs: 


Buttons are very common input devices, which are used as switches in multiple places. micro:bit has three buttons altogether, two buttons are programmable, and one button is a reset button for the micro:bit. 

The programmable buttons exist on the same side as an LED matrix, while the reset button exists on the opposite side of micro:bit. 

Light Sensors 

The micro:bit uses the LED Display matrix as the light sensor. The LED display also detect measure and respond to the level o flight where it is placed. Check out the link here to find out how the light sensors work in a micro:bit? 

Temperature Sensors

A temperature sensor is an input device that measures temperature. Your BBC micro:bit has a temperature sensor inside the processor which can give you an approximation of the air temperature. 

Acceleration Sensors

An accelerometer is a motion sensor that measures movement. The accelerometer in your BBC micro:bit detects when you tilt it left to right, backward and forwards, and up and down.

robotics and microbit


  1. Micro:bit Educational Foundation | micro:bit

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