#FutureSTEMLeaders - Wiingy's $2400 scholarship for School and College Students

Apply Now


Python Tutorial: A Comprehensive Guide for Beginners

Written by Rahul Lath

Updated on: 07 Dec 2023

Python Tutorials

1Python Overview2Python Tutorial: A Comprehensive Guide for Beginners3Python Keywords and Identifiers4Download and Installation Guide for Python5Python Syntax (With Examples)6Python Comments7Python Variables (With Examples)8Taking Input in Python9Output in Python10File Handling in Python (Files I/O)11Python Operators (With Examples)12Ternary Operators in Python13Operator Overloading in Python14Division Operators in Python15Input from Console in Python16Output Formatting in Python17Any All in Python18Difference between Python Equality and Identity Operators19Python Membership and Identity Operators20Python Data Types21Python Dictionary22Control Flow in Python23Python Arrays24Looping Techniques in Python25Chaining Comparison Operators in Python26Python Functions27Python Strings28Python Numbers29Python Sets30Python For Loops31Python While Loops32Python Break Statement:33Python Continue Statement34Python pass Statement35Args and Kwargs in Python36Python Generators37Python Lambda38Global and Local Variables in Python39Global Keyword in Python40Python Closures41Python Decorators42Memoization using Decorators in Python43Constructors in Python44Encapsulation in Python45Inheritance in Python46Polymorphism in Python47Class Method vs Static Method in Python48Python Exception Handling49First Class Functions in Python50Python Classes And Objects51Errors and Exceptions in Python52Built-In Exceptions in Python53Append to file in Python54File Handling in Python55Destructors in Python56User-Defined Exceptions in Python57Class or Static Variable in Python58Python Tuples59Reading File in Python60Writing File in Python61Opening and Closing Files in Python62NZEC error in Python63Operator Function64Webscraper Python Beautifulsoup65Python Pyramid Patterns66Python Start Patterns67Web Crawler in Python68Build a Python Youtube Downloader69Currency Convertor in Python70Python Website Blocker
tutor Pic

What is Python?

A. Definition of Python

Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language that puts an emphasis on code that is clear and easy to understand. It is the perfect language for beginners because it is made to be simple to learn and use. Python code is written in simple English with an intuitive syntax.

B. History of Python

Guido van Rossum, a Dutch programmer, came up with the first version of Python in the late 1980s. He gave it the moniker “Monty Python” after the British comic troupe. While looking for a new recreational project to focus on in December 1989, Guido van Rossum started developing Python. Since the language’s 1991 debut, its ubiquity has increased significantly.

C. Versions of Python

Python has two major versions: Python 2 and Python 3. Python 2 was released in 2000, and it is still used by some developers today. However, Python 2 is no longer supported, and all new development should be done using Python 3. Python 3 was released in 2008 and has been continuously developed and improved since then. The latest version of Python 3 is Python 3.11.2, which was released in February, 2023.

D. How Python is used in industry

Python is used for a wide range of applications in many different sectors. Python is used in web development for creating web apps, web scraping, and automation. Python is a language used in scientific computing for data analysis, visualization, and simulation. Python is used to develop machine learning models, applications for natural language processing, and computer vision in artificial intelligence and machine learning. Python is also used to create desktop programs and games, among other things.

What can Python do?

Python is a versatile language that may be used for many different things. It is well known for being adaptable and simple to use, making it suitable for both easy and difficult tasks. Python is a popular programming language for tasks including web design, data analysis, machine learning, scientific computing, game production, and more.

Applications of Python

Python has many applications in various industries. Some of the popular applications of Python include:

  1. Web Development: Python is used to develop web applications and websites. Popular web frameworks like Django and Flask are built using Python.
  2. Data Analysis: Python is used for data analysis and visualization. The popular data analysis libraries include NumPy, Pandas, and Matplotlib.
  3. Machine Learning: Python is used for building machine learning models. The popular machine learning libraries include TensorFlow, Keras, and Scikit-learn.
  4. Scientific Computing: Python is used for scientific computing and simulation. Libraries like SciPy and SymPy are used for scientific computing tasks.

Use cases of Python

Python has many use cases in various industries. For example, in finance, Python is used for quantitative analysis and risk management. In healthcare, Python is used for analyzing medical data and developing algorithms for diagnosis. In retail, Python is used for inventory management and analyzing customer data. In education, Python is used for developing educational software and online learning platforms.

Why Python? Features of Python Language

Python is a great choice for a wide range of programming tasks, from simple projects for beginners to complex, large-scale applications, because it is easy to use, flexible, has a strong community, and works on multiple platforms. Following are the features of Python:

A. Simplicity and ease of use

Python is a simple and easy-to-learn language, making it an ideal language for beginners. Its syntax is straightforward and resembles the English language, which makes it easy to read and understand. For example, to print “Hello, Welcome to Python Tutorial” in Python, you only need one line of code:

print("Hello, Welcome to Python Tutorial!")

B. Interpreted language

Python is an interpreted language, so there is no need for compilation because the code is executed line by line. This expedites and improves the development process. For instance, you won’t have to wait for the compilation process to finish in order to see the results of a modification you make to your code.

C. Object-oriented language

Python is an object-oriented language, which means that it allows you to create objects with their own attributes and methods. Object-oriented programming makes it easier to write reusable code and organize complex programs.

D. Large standard library

Python has a large standard library that provides developers with a wide range of tools and modules for various tasks. The standard library includes modules for working with databases, networking, file input/output, and more. This makes it easier for developers to build complex applications without having to write all the code from scratch.

E. High-level language

Python is a high-level language, which means that it is abstracted from the details of the underlying hardware. This makes it easier to write code and focus on the task at hand, rather than worrying about low-level details like memory management and CPU registers.

F. Cross-platform compatibility

Python is a cross-platform language, which means that it can run on different operating systems without requiring any changes to the code. This makes it easier to develop applications that can run on different platforms, such as Windows, Linux, and macOS.

In summary, Python is a versatile programming language that is easy to learn and use. It has a vast library of modules and tools that make it easier for developers to build complex applications. Python’s simplicity, object-oriented nature, and cross-platform compatibility make it a popular choice for many industries and use cases.

II. Why Python is popular

Python’s simplicity, use, and applicability have helped it become extremely popular in recent years. Its grammar is straightforward and simple to understand, making it a great language for novices to master. Python is also an interpreted language, which speeds up development because it does not need a compiler to turn the code into a machine-readable format. Python also contains a sizable library of pre-built modules, which makes it simpler for programmers to create sophisticated applications.

Softwares making use of Python

Many well-known software programs, including online applications, video games, scientific tools, and more, have been created using Python. Python is a versatile and potent language that is excellent for creating many kinds of software.

A. Examples of software built with Python

Some examples of software built with Python include:

  1. YouTube: YouTube uses Python for various backend processes, including transcoding videos and serving recommendations to users.
  2. Instagram: Instagram’s backend is built using Python, which allows it to handle millions of requests per second.
  3. Dropbox: Dropbox uses Python for its server infrastructure, which allows it to handle the file uploads and downloads of millions of users.
  4. NASA: Python is used for various scientific and engineering applications at NASA, including data analysis, simulations, and visualization.

B. Advantages of using Python for software development

Some advantages of using Python for software development include:

  1. Easy to learn and use: Python has a simple syntax and is easy to learn, which makes it a popular choice for beginners.
  2. Large standard library: Python’s standard library includes many modules and tools for various tasks, which makes it easier to develop software without having to write everything from scratch.
  3. Versatile: Python can be used for various types of software development, including web development, scientific computing, data analysis, and more.
  4. Cross-platform compatibility: Python code can run on different platforms without requiring any changes, which makes it easier to develop software for different operating systems.

Applications of Python

There are several applications of python in the tech industry like –

A. Web development

Python is used to create popular web frameworks like Django and Flask. Python is also used for web development. These frameworks give developers the resources they need to swiftly and easily create websites and web apps. For instance, a web developer can quickly create a blog application using Django and Python.

B. Data analysis and visualization

Python is used to analyze and visualize data, and well-known libraries like NumPy, Pandas, and Matplotlib give developers the resources they need to do so quickly. A data analyst, for example, could use Python to look for trends and patterns in client data by analyzing and visualizing it. 

C. Artificial intelligence and machine learning

Python is used for artificial intelligence and machine learning, and popular libraries like TensorFlow, Keras, and Scikit-learn provide developers with the tools to build machine learning models easily. For example, a developer can use Python to build a speech recognition system using machine learning algorithms.

D. Scientific computing

Python is used for scientific computing, and popular libraries like SciPy and SymPy provide developers with the tools to solve complex scientific and mathematical problems easily. For example, a scientist can use Python to simulate a physical system and analyze the results.

E. Gaming and multimedia

Python Syntax compared to other programming languages

Python is used for gaming and multimedia, and well-known libraries like Pygame give programmers the means to create these things quickly. For instance, a game developer can create a straightforward 2D game with Pygame in a few hours using Python.

Python has a simpler and more readable syntax compared to other programming languages such as Java and C++. It is often considered a beginner-friendly language because of its easy-to-read code.

A. Key differences in syntax and structure

Some key differences in Python’s syntax and structure include:

  1. Indentation: Python uses indentation to indicate blocks of code, whereas other languages use curly braces or parentheses.
  2. Dynamic typing: Python is dynamically typed, which means that variables can change their data type during runtime.
  3. No semicolons: Unlike many other programming languages, Python does not require semicolons at the end of statements.

B. Advantages of Python syntax

Some advantages of Python’s syntax include:

  1. Readability: Python’s syntax is easy to read and understand, which makes it easier to write and maintain code.
  2. Reduced lines of code: Python’s syntax requires fewer lines of code compared to other programming languages, which makes it faster to develop software.
  3. Reduced errors: Python’s indentation-based syntax reduces the likelihood of errors caused by incorrect syntax.

Syntax and Basic Concepts

A. Variables and Data Types

In Python, variables are used to store data. There are different data types in Python, including integers, floating-point numbers, strings, and booleans. For example:

Python Tutorial for Variables and Data Types x = 10 # integer variable y = 3.14 # floating-point variable name = "John" # string variable is_true = True # boolean variable

B. Operators

Operators are used in Python to perform mathematical and logical operations. Some common operators in Python include:

Python Tutorial for Operators # Arithmetic operators x = 10 y = 5 z = x + y # Addition z = x - y # Subtraction z = x * y # Multiplication z = x / y # Division # Comparison operators x = 10 y = 5 z = x > y # Greater than z = x < y # Less than z = x == y # Equal to z = x != y # Not equal to # Logical operators x = True y = False z = x and y # Logical AND z = x or y # Logical OR z = not x # Logical NOT

C. Control Structures

Control structures are used in Python to control the flow of execution in a program.

Conditional Statements:

Conditional statements are used in Python to execute different code blocks based on a condition. The if, elif, and else keywords are used for conditional statements. For example:

Python Tutorial for Conditional Statements x = 10 if x > 5: print("x is greater than 5") elif x == 5: print("x is equal to 5") else: print("x is less than 5")


Loops are used in Python to execute the same code block multiple times. The for and while loops are used for looping in Python. For example:

Python Tutorial for Loops loop for i in range(1, 5): print(i) # While loop i = 1 while i <= 5: print(i) i += 1


A. What are functions?

Functions are a set of instructions that perform a specific task. They allow you to reuse code and make your program more organized.

B. Defining and calling functions

To define a function in Python, you use the def keyword, followed by the name of the function, and then a set of parentheses. For example:

def greet(): print("Hello, Welcome to Python Tutorial for Functions")

To call a function, you simply use the name of the function followed by a set of parentheses. For example:

greet() # Output: Hello, Welcome to Python Tutorial for Functions!

C. Parameters and arguments

Functions can take input values called parameters or arguments. Parameters are specified in the function definition, and arguments are passed to the function when it is called. For example:

/code Python Tutorial for Parameters and Arguments
start/ def greet(name): print("Hello, " + name + "!") greet("John") 
# Output: Hello, John! 
Python Tutorial for Lists fruits = ["apple", "banana", "cherry"]

B. Tuples

A tuple is a collection of items that are ordered and immutable. Tuples are defined using parentheses and each item is separated by a comma. For example:

Python Tutorial for Tuples fruits = ("apple", "banana", "cherry")

C. Dictionaries

A dictionary is a collection of items that are unordered and mutable. Each item in a dictionary is a key-value pair separated by a colon. Dictionaries are defined using curly braces. For example:

Python Tutorial for Dictionary person = {"name": "John", "age": 25, "gender": "male"}

File Input/Output

A. Reading from files

To read from a file in Python, you use the open() function to open the file and the read() method to read its contents. For example:

Python Tutorial to Read Files file = open("example.txt", "r") content = file.read() print(content) file.close()

B. Writing to files

To write to a file in Python, you use the open() function with the mode set to “w” to open the file in write mode, and the write() method to write to the file. For example:

Python Tutorial for Writing to Files file = open("example.txt", "w") file.write("This is some example text.") file.close()

Modules and Libraries

A. What are modules and libraries?

In Python, modules and libraries are collections of functions and variables that can be used in a program. A module is a single Python file, while a library is a collection of modules.

B. Importing modules and libraries

To use a module or library in a Python program, you first need to import it. You can import a module using the import keyword followed by the name of the module. For example:

Python Tutorial for Importing Modules import math

You can also import specific functions or variables from a module using the from keyword. For example:

from math import pi

C. Examples of useful libraries in Python

Python has a large collection of libraries that can be used for various purposes such as web development, data analysis, machine learning, and scientific computing. Some examples of useful libraries include:

  • NumPy: A library for numerical computing in Python.
  • Pandas: A library for data manipulation and analysis.
  • Matplotlib: A library for data visualization.
  • Django: A web framework for building web applications in Python.
  • TensorFlow: A library for machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Industrial importance of Python

Python is widely used in various industries such as finance, healthcare, gaming, and technology. It is used for data analysis, web development, machine learning, scientific computing, and automation.

A. Benefits of using Python for business

Python is a versatile and easy-to-learn programming language that can help businesses save time and money by automating repetitive tasks, processing large amounts of data, and building scalable web applications.

B. Importance of Python skills in the job market

Python is one of the most in-demand programming languages in the job market. Having Python skills can open up a wide range of job opportunities in various industries and can help you stand out among other candidates.

Organizations using Python

Many organizations around the world use Python for various purposes. Some of the industries where Python is commonly used include finance, healthcare, gaming, and technology.

A. Examples of companies and industries using Python

Some examples of companies and industries using Python include:

  • Google: Google uses Python for various purposes such as search indexing, machine learning, and automation.
  • JP Morgan: JP Morgan uses Python for risk management, pricing, and trading.
  • Instagram: Instagram’s backend is built on Python and Django.
  • NASA: NASA uses Python for scientific computing and data analysis.

B. Advantages of using Python in business

Using Python in business can offer many advantages such as increased productivity, reduced costs, and improved scalability. Python’s large collection of libraries and easy-to-learn syntax make it a popular choice for businesses looking to automate tasks, process large amounts of data, and build scalable web applications.


A. Basic Python programs and code examples

To get started with Python programming, let’s look at some basic examples:

  1. The classic “Hello, World!” program in Python is just one line of code:
/code start print("Hello, Welcome to Python Tutorial") 
Python Tutorial for Arithmetic Operations # Assign values to variables x = 10 y = 5 # Perform arithmetic operations sum = x + y difference = x - y product = x * y quotient = x / y # Print the results print("sum:", sum) print("difference:", difference) print("product:", product) print("quotient:", quotient)

If statements

  1. You can use if statements to make decisions in your Python programs, like this:
Python Tutorial for If Statements # Set a variable number = 10 # Check if the number is greater than 5 if number > 5: print("The number is greater than 5") else: print("The number is less than or equal to 5")

B. Real-world applications of Python

Python is used in a wide range of industries and applications, including:

  1. Web development: Python is popular for creating web applications, especially with frameworks like Django and Flask.
  2. Data science and machine learning: Python has become the go-to language for data analysis and machine learning, with libraries like NumPy, Pandas, and TensorFlow.
  3. Scientific computing: Python is widely used in scientific computing, especially with tools like SciPy and Matplotlib.
  4. Gaming and multimedia: Python is used for game development, especially with the Pygame library.
  5. Automation: Python is often used for automating tasks, such as with the Selenium library for web automation.
  6. Finance: Python is used in the finance industry for tasks like risk management, algorithmic trading, and data analysis.

C. Code snippets for Python libraries and frameworks

Here are a few code snippets showing how to use some popular Python libraries and frameworks:

  1. Flask web framework
Python Tutorial for Flask from flask import Flask app = Flask(__name__) @app.route("/") def hello(): return "Hello, World!" if __name__ == "__main__": app.run()
  1. NumPy library:
Python Tutorial for NumPy import numpy as np # Create a NumPy array x = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]) # Perform arithmetic operations on the array y = x * 2 z = x + y # Print the results print("x:", x) print("y:", y) print("z:", z)
  1. Pygame library for game development:
Python Tutorial for PyGame import pygame # Initialize the game pygame.init() # Set the screen size screen = pygame.display.set_mode((640, 480)) # Load an image image = pygame.image.load("image.png") # Draw the image on the screen screen.blit(image, (0, 0)) # Update the screen pygame.display.update() # Wait for the user to close the window while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == pygame.QUIT: pygame.quit() sys.exit()

Running Python code

Running Python code in the terminal:

To run Python code in the terminal, you need to open the terminal or command prompt and enter the command python followed by the name of the file you want to run. For example, if your file name is my_script.py, you would enter the command python my_script.py in the terminal.

Running Python code in an IDE:

An IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is a software application that provides a comprehensive environment for writing, testing, and debugging code. To run Python code in an IDE, you need to open the IDE, create a new Python project, write the code in the editor, and then execute it by clicking on the “run” button or using a keyboard shortcut.

Debugging Python code:

Debugging is the process of finding and fixing errors or bugs in your code. To debug Python code, you can use a debugger, which is a tool that allows you to step through your code line by line, set breakpoints, and examine the values of variables and expressions at runtime. Some popular Python debuggers include PDB (Python Debugger), PyCharm Debugger, and VS Code Debugger.

Python Implementation

Python is an interpreted language, which means that it is executed line by line at runtime. Python code is executed using an interpreter, which converts the code into machine code that the computer can understand. There are several implementations of Python, including CPython, Jython, and IronPython, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

How Python code is executed:

Python code is executed by the Python interpreter, which reads the code line by line and executes it in sequence. The interpreter compiles the code into bytecode, which is then executed by the Python virtual machine (PVM). The PVM is responsible for executing the bytecode and managing the memory and resources used by the Python program.

 Differences between CPython, Jython, and IronPython:

CPython is the reference implementation of Python and is written in C. It is the most widely used implementation and is known for its performance and compatibility with third-party libraries. Jython is an implementation of Python that is written in Java and runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It allows you to use Python code in Java applications and vice versa. IronPython is an implementation of Python that is written in C# and runs on the .NET Framework. It allows you to use Python code in .NET applications and vice versa.


What is Python used for?

Python is a general-purpose programming language that can be used for a variety of tasks, including web development, data analysis, machine learning, scientific computing, and more.

Is Python easy to learn?

Python is often considered one of the easiest programming languages to learn, thanks to its simple syntax and readability. Beginners can refer python tutorial, online courses, to get started.

What kind of jobs can I get with Python skills?

Python is widely used in many different industries, including finance, healthcare, education, and more. Some common job titles that may require Python skills include data analyst, software developer, machine learning engineer, and scientific researcher.

What is the best place to learn Python?

There are many resources available for learning Python, including online python tutorials, books, and courses. Some popular resources include Codecademy, Udemy, and the official Python documentation.

Can Python be used for mobile app development?

Yes, Python can be used for mobile app development using frameworks like Kivy and BeeWare. However, it is not as commonly used for mobile app development as other programming languages like Java or Swift.

Written by

Rahul Lath

Reviewed by

Arpit Rankwar

Share article on

tutor Pic
tutor Pic